Friday, August 10, 2012

Fabricating History – 2000 BC

Cooking up evidence in scientific research is known though very rarely. In the recent past I came across, attempts to cook up Aryan migration/invasion theory.
The first argument that I saw (1, 2) was from one David Frawley an American with an Indian title Pandit Vamadeva Shastri supposedly given by a Hindu organization from Mumbai. Incidentally he also sports the title Dr. for his knowledge in Chinese Medicine. He argues for “Indigenous Aryans” meaning that Aryans did not migrate to India from out side but evolved within the present geographical boundaries of India. He further asserts that dark skin color of South Indians is due to excess Sun Light in South India. Then he has to answer as to why certain communities in South are fair skinned? Or why Bhils in North India are dark skinned? Vedic studies is a business for Frawley and he comes handy to Hindutva politics!
The biggest hurdle is the association of Horses with Vedic Aryans and bone analysis shows that horses entered Indus Valley Civilization only around 2000 BC. To over come this difficulty some Hindutva gentle men created  fake Indus seals (3) that depict a horse!
There are gentle men who tried to manipulate genetic studies to say that Aryans (Ancient North Indians or ANI in the terminology of Population Genetics) were living in India since 40000 years. Unfortunately the recent genetic studies say (4) otherwise that is the major mix up of ANI with ASI (Ancient South Indians, a population genetics term for Native Indian) took place around 4000 years before the present  or around 2000 BC. Also it is being reported that R1a1 gene marker that is found in some Indian castes (5) has originated in East Europe and came to India between 5200 to 2600 years back.
2000 BC is the period when IVC (Indus Valley Civilization) has collapsed. But why some people are so worried about Aryan arrival? They came and settled here long back and so what? Why these attempts to twist and fabricate evidence? We all know that scientific fraud does not stay for long!

[4] ANI-ASI Admixture Dating,

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Mobile Phone history

Mobile Phone history

Since the mid-1990s, mobile (or cell / cellular) phones have gradually become a lot of vital in our daily lives. Whereas early phones were able to do no over create phone calls and send text messages, today's smartphones are a lot of like little computers instead of phones. I constantly hear individuals at work talking regarding the newest apps they need downloaded to their iPhone or Android phone. And though several of the apps are helpful, several don't seem to be. Because, for several folks a minimum of, our attention span tends to be fairly short, we've this urge to stay downloading new apps to stay ourselves entertained.

The Size of Handsets

We have all seen photos of the handsets of the late '80s and laughed at how huge they were. It's onerous to believe that they were 'mobile' phones the least bit. Martin Cooper, who led the team that developed the primary telephone (the Motorola DynaTAC - 1973) once commented on the actual fact that though the battery lifetime of the phone was solely twenty minutes, that wasn't a haul as a result of you could not hold the handset for that long as a result of it weighing such a lot (2.2 pounds - one kg).

During the course of the Nineties, the dimensions of handsets gradually got littleer till by the first 2000s they were thus small that the keypads were, for several individuals, just about unusable. i personally had such a phone and within the finish had to administer it to my son as a result of my fingers were too huge and that i found it terribly troublesome to avoid pressing 2 characters on the keypad at identical time.

Some of the first Pioneers

I've already mentioned Martin Cooper who led the team that developed the primary telephone in 1973, however there are many people who have played a big role within the history of the mobile / telephone. Going approach back to individuals like Samuel Morse and Michael Faraday who created early breakthroughs in fields like telegraphy and electromagnetism, moving through to Alexander Graham Bell and Guglielmo Marconi who played important roles in phonephone systems and radio transmissions, respectively.

Generations of mobile

The history of the mobile history is usually divided into generations (first, second, third and thus on) to mark important changes in capabilities as technology has improved.

First generation (1G) mobile phones

The first commercially automated mobile network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan in 1979 by NTT in Japan. at intervals some years, the network had been expanded to hide the complete population of Japan and have become the primary nation-wide 1G network.

Second generation (2G) mobile phones

During the Nineties, the second generation (2G) mobile systems emerged. These were primarily using the GSM normal. 2G differed from 1G by using digital transmission rather than analog transmission, and additionally quick out-of-band phone-to-network signaling. the increase in mobile usage as a results of 2G was explosive and this era additionally saw the appearance of prepaid mobile phones (pay-as-you-go).

Third generation (3G) mobile phones

In the mid-2000s, the 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol emerged. there have been additionally three.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G protocols.

Fourth generation (4G) mobile phones

By 2009, it had become clear that 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the expansion of bandwidth-intensive applications like streaming media. Consequently, the trade began trying to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed enhancements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. the primary 2 commercially on the market technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX normal (offered within the U.S. by Sprint) and also the LTE normal, initial offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.

Monday, January 2, 2012

History of samsung mobiles

History of samsung mobiles

Samsung traces its origin in South Korea founded by Lee Byung - Chull. he's a member of a wealthy landed family in South Korea and is extremely formidable and onerous operating. He started business in 1938 as an export company trading fruits, vegetables and dried fish. His business was doing fine till in 1950 when the Korean war broke out. He relocated to the comparatively peaceful city of Suwon where his business thrived once more.Lee initial ventured into producing in 1953 once the war with a sugar refinery. Like his alternative businesses, this soon grew into a awfully profitable and gave him monetary security. He then branched into establishing department shops for trading and then additionally ventured into selling insurance policies and securities.In 1969, he founded Samsung Electronics and it benefited greatly from the policies of then President Park Chung. the govt helped anyone who was building profitable businesses among South Korea. monetary help was provided whenever this is often required by any company and guarded native makers by banning foreign makers to eliminate competition. bound foreign corporations were allowed to try and do business within the country given that they transfer technology into South Korea.This allowed South Korean corporations, as well as Samsung, to grow stronger while not competition. Among those technologies transferred is that of electronic boards and chips production.All these positive business support allowed Samsung to manufacture its own communications business product and a spread of household appliances. throughout this era, the corporate experienced large growth that it had been ready to acquire its own tv station referred to as the Tongyang Broadcasting Company.During this point, Samsung additionally ventured into significant industries like ship building and petrol refinery ventures. except for Samsung Electronics, Samsung ship Building, Samsung Precision company, that mass made home appliances, and Samsung significant Industries Company were established.In the next decade of the 80s all Samsung industries continued to grow and Lee still had the penchant into venturing into new businesses. These embrace aerospace industries, genetic engineering and nanotechnology. However, it had been the electronics and residential appliances producing section that grew the foremost.Between 1982 and 1987, producing plants for chips and appliances were in-built the big apple, England and Portugal and signaled the approaching more matured of Samsung as a worldwide conglomerate. By then, Lee Byung - Chull, who had been running the assorted corporations for over fifty years was able to hand over leadership to his son, Kun - Hee Lee, who took over as Chairman.Today, samsung mobiles, which implies 3 stars within the Korean language, is already a worldwide complete that's most known for its electronic product like microprocessors, mobile phones and electronic gadgets also as home appliances. it's the globe leader in liquid crystal show production and is that the second in terms of revenues for itinerant production. it's overtaken technology giants like Motorola, Siemens and Hewlett Packard. it's additionally considered among the highest companies across the world. mammoth for a corporation that started with vegetables and dried fish.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

History and Success story Nokia Phone

History and Success story Nokia Phone

Nokia has been in the Australian mobile phone market since 1985. It started as a network infrastructure business helping to build the country's mobile telecommunications networks.Since those humble beginnings 24 years ago, Nokia has grown to become one of the most successful and well-recognised brands in Australia, leading the market with its mobile technology, enterprise products and services, and network infrastructure.

Nokia 1100 – world's best selling mobile phone
In might 2007, Nokia mobiles announced that its Nokia 1100 handset, launched in 2003, was the best-selling movable of all time at over two hundred million units and therefore the world's top-selling shopper electronics product.In November 2007, Nokia announced and released the Nokia N82, its initial Nseries phone with Xenon flash.In 2008, Nokia customers were able to access the "Comes With Music" program – twelve months of free access to music downloads.Also in 2008, Nokia released the Nokia E71, an inexpensive BlackBerry device giving with a full QWERTY keyboard.In August 2009 Nokia announced a high-end Windows-based mini laptop known as the Nokia Booklet 3G.In September 2009, Nokia launched 2 new music and social networking phones, X6 and X3 and a replacement handset, 7705 Twist, that swivels open to a full QWERTY keypad and options a 3mp camera, internet browsing, voice commands. It weighs solely ninety eight gm.Run your workplace on a Nokia mobileThe 1984 brick definitely got folks out of the workplace, however with the most recent models, mobility is barely the primary of their options.With internet connectivity, video conferencing, multiple messaging, document production, you'll run your workplace on a Nokia E71 or 7705 Twist, or the soon to be on the market mini laptop, the Nokia Booklet 3G from anyplace within the world.What will Nokia bring us in 2010? conclude a lot of concerning the longer term of mobile phones (link to different article)

Saturday, June 25, 2011

History of EUROPE

This mighty change in the course of Teutonic destiny, this breakdown of the Frankish empire, was wrought by two destroying forces, one from within, one from without. From within came the insubordination, the still savage love of combat, the natural turbulence of the race. It is conceivable that, had Charlemagne been followed on the throne by a son and then a grandson as mighty as he and his immediate ancestors, the course of the whole broad earth would have been altered. The Franks would have grown accustomed to obey; further conquest abroad would have insured peace at home; the imperial power would have become strong as in Roman days, when the most feeble emperors could not be shaken. But the descendants of Charlemagne sank into a decline. He himself had directed the fighting energy of the Franks against foreign enemies. His son and successor had no taste for war, and so allowed his idle subjects time to quarrel with him and with one another. The next generation, under the grandsons of Charlemagne, devoted their entire lives to repeated and furious civil wars, in which the empire fell apart, the flower of the Frankish race perished, and the strength of its dominion was sapped to nothingness.

There were three of these grandsons, and, when their struggle had left them thoroughly exhausted, they divided the empire into three. Their treaty of Verdun (843) is often quoted as beginning the modern kingdoms of Germany, France, and Italy. The division was in some sense a natural one, emphasized by differences of language and of race. Italy was peopled by descendants of the ancient Italians, with a thin intermingling of Goths and Lombards; France held half-Romanized Gauls, with a very considerable percentage of the Frankish blood; while Germany was far more barbaric than the other regions. Its people, whether Frank or Saxon, were all pure Teuton, and still spoke in their Teutonic or German tongue.

The Franks themselves, however, did not regard this as a breaking of their empire. They looked on it as merely a family affair, an arrangement made for the convenience of government among the descendants of the great Charles. So firm had been that mighty hero’s grasp upon the national imagination, that the Franks accepted as matter of course that his family should bear rule, and rallied round the various worthless members of it with rather pathetic loyalty, fighting for them one against the other, reuniting and redividing the various fragments of the empire, until the feeble Carlovingian race died out completely.

It is thus evident that there was a strong tendency toward union among the Franks. But there was also an outside influence to disrupt their empire. Charlemagne had not carried far enough their career of conquest. He subdued the Teutons within the limits of Germany, but he did not reach their weaker Scandinavian brethren to the north, the Danes and Norsemen. He chastised the Avars, a vague non-Aryan people east of Germany, but he could not make provision against future Asiatic swarms. He humbled the Arabs in Spain, but he did not break their African dominion. From all these sources, as the Franks grew weaker instead of stronger, their lands became exposed to new invasion.